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1681 Papin - Safety Valve, Pressure Cooker, Steam Engine, Power Piston 1687 Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Calculus, Laws of Motion, Gravity, Planetary Motions, Motion of Tides, Optical Prism, Spectrum of White Light, Reflecting Telescope, Cat-flap 1698 Savery - Steam Driven Water Pump 1700 Leibniz - German Academy of Sciences Founded 1701 Jethro Tull - Seed Drill, Mechanised Farming 1705 Hauksbee - Electroluminescent Glow Discharge Lamp 1709 Abraham Darby I - Iron Making at Coalbrookdale 1707 Papin, Leibniz - Steam Driven Water Pump 1712 Newcomen - Reciprocating Atmospheric Steam Engine 1713 Réaumur - Fibreglass, Thermometer, Temperature Scale 1714 Fahrenheit - Mercury Thermometer, Temperature Scale Harrison - Longitude, Marine Chronometer, Bimetallic Strip Thermostat, Clock and Watch Regulator Mechanisms 1725 Bouchon - Stored Program, Punched Paper Tape, Machine Automation 1728 Falcon - Punched Cards, Manufacturing Automation 1729 Gray - Electric Conduction 1730 Bird, Godfrey, Hadley, Newton - Octant, Sextant 1733 du Fay - Positive and Negative Charges Kay - Flying Shuttle de Moivre - Bell Curve (Normal Distribution) 1738 Bernoulli - Fluid Mechanics 1740 Huntsman - Crucible Steel at Sheffield 1744 de Vaucanson - Stored Program, Punched Cards, Machine Automation 1745 van Musschenbroek, Cunaeus, von Kleist - Leyden Jar 1746 Nollet - Electric Communications Robins - Whirling Arm Apparatus, Aerodynamic Drag 1747 Cavendish - Electric Potential, Electric Charge, Inverse Square Law Watson - Earth Return 1748 Watson - Glow Discharge, Fluorescent Light Nollet - Electroscope Euler - Mathematical Constant e, Euler's Trigonometrical Formulae, Turbine Equations Smeaton, da Borda, Burdin, Fourneyron, Boyden, Thomson, Francis, Girard, Pelton, Kaplan - Hydraulic Power, Water Turbines 1750 to 1850 The Industrial Revolution 1750 Nollet - Electrostatic Spraying Michell - Magnetic Induction, Inverse Square Law 1752 Dalibard - Lightning Experiments Franklin - Electrical Experiments Sulzer - Battery Tongue Test Mayer - Longitude Determination by Sextant, Lunar Distance Tables 1753 Morrison - Telegraph 1757 Adanson, Walsh - Electric Fish, Electric Shocks 1759 Aepinus - Mathematics of Electricity and Magnetism, Variable Capacitor Smeaton - Aerodynamic Lift Equation, Society of Civil Engineers 1761 Black - Latent Heat Brindley - Bridgewater canal, Harecastle Tunnel 1764 Kay, Hargreaves, Highs, Arkwright - Spinning Jenny Arkwright - Factory System (Textiles) 1765 Boulton - Factory System (Metalworking) Lunar Society of Birmingham Founded 1766 de Saussure - Electrometer Cavendish - Hydrogen 1767 Priestley - History of Electricity, Oxygen 1769 Watt - Steam Engine with Separate Condenser, Centrifugal Governor (Automatic Control System) 1770 Cugnot - Self Propelled Road Vehicle, Rotary Drive, Freewheel Mechanism 1771 Arkwright - Machine Powered Factory Scheele - Oxygen, Chlorine, Light Sensitive Silver Salts (Basis of Photographic Process) 1774 Le Sage - Electric Telegraph 1775 Volta - Perpetual Electrophorus Wilkinson - Precision Machine Tools Ketley - Building Societies 1779 Abraham Darby III - Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale Crompton - Spinning Mule 1780 Pickard - Rotary Motion by Means of Flywheel and Crank 1782 Laplace - Integral Transform, Probability Theory 1783 Cort - Rolling Mill, Reverbatory Furnace, Puddling to Make Steel 1784 Cavendish - Chemical Composition of Water Mesmer - Animal Magnetism 1785 Coulomb - Inverse Square Law 1786 Galvani - Animal Electricity 1787 Charles, Gay Lussac - Gas Laws Fitch - Steam Powered Boat 1789 Lavoisier - Conservation of Mass, Elements 1790 Jefferson - Patent Laws Hopkins - First US Patent 1791 Richter - Stoichiometry, Law of Definite Proportions Barber - Gas Turbine Engine, Water Jet Propulsion 1792 Murdoch - Coal Gas 1794 Whitney - Cotton Gin 1795 Bramah - Hydraulic Press, Unpickable Lock 1797 von Humboldt - Galvanic Electricity Maudslay - Precision Machine Tools, Screw-Cutting Lathe, Surface Plates, Engineers Blue, Micrometer Whitworth - Firearms, Rifling 1798 Whitney - Interchangeable Components, Milling Machine 1799 Rumford - Equivalence of Thermal Energy and Mechanical Work, Founded the Royal Institution Cayley - Theory of Aeronautics, Manned Gliders, Artillery Shells, Caterpillar Tracks, Prosthetic Hand, Hot Air Engine, Automatic Brakes, Railway Signalling, Fire and Railway Safety Systems Lukin, Wouldhave - Self-righting Lifeboat 1800 Volta - Battery Nicholson, Carlisle - Electrolysis Herschel - Infrared Radiation 1801 Ritter - Ultra Violet Radiation Jacquard - Stored Program, Programmed Machine Control Gautherot - Rechargeable Battery 1802 Cruikshank - Electrodeposition, Electroplating Wollaston - Optical Polarisation, Wollaston Prism 1803 Ritter - Rechargeable Battery Dalton - Atomic Theory, Gas Laws 1804 Salvá - Electric Telegraph Trevithick - Steam Powered Road Vehicle 1805 Brugnatelli - Electroplating 1807 Young - Modulus of Elasticity, Wave Theory of Light Davy - Isolation of Elements by Electrolysis Fulton - Steam Boat Fourier - Heat Transfer, Fourier Transform Gauss - Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 1808 Berzelius - Law of Definite Proportions, Chemical Notation, Atomic Masses Marc Isambard Brunel - Mass Production 1809 Davy - Carbon Arc Lamp 1810 1811 Avogadro - Molecular Weights Hypothesis (Avogadro's Law) 1812 von Sömmering - Electric Telegraph Zamboni - High Voltage "Dry" Battery, Electric Clock 1814 Fraunhofer - Fraunhofer Lines, Light Spectrum Analysis 1805 Brugnatelli - Electroplating 1816 Ronalds - Electric Telegraph Wollaston - Reserve Battery Stirling - Stirling "Hot Air" Engine, Regenerator 1819 Dulong, Petit - Specific Heat Capacity Law Rogers - Steamship Atlantic Crossing 1820 Øersted - Magnetism and Electricity Ampère - Magnetic Forces, Electric Potential Biot, Savart - Magnetic Fields Schweigger - Galvanometer Arago - Electromagnet Hare - Spiral Wound Electrodes 1821 Seebeck - Thermoelectric Effect Faraday - Electric Motor 1822 Barlow - Electric Motor Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Railways, Iron Ships 1823 Döbereiner - Catalysis 1824 Berzelius - Silicon Isolated Carnot - Heat Engine Theory, Second Law of Thermodynamics 1825 Ampère - Magnetic Field Theory Sturgeon - Electromagnet Stephenson - Railways Marc Isambard Brunel, Lord Cochrane - Tunneling Shield, Thames Tunnel 1826 Nobili, Melloni - Astatic Galvanometer, Thermoelectric Battery Poggendorff - Mirror Galvanometer Krupp - Cast Steel, Steel Cannons, Weldless Steel Railway Tyre, Artillery Shells, Employee Social Benefits 1827 Ohm - Ohm's Law Brown - Brownian Motion 1828 Berzelius - Atomic Weights Green - Mathematical Analysis of Electricity and Magnetism Dutrochet - Osmosis Jedlik - Electric Motor, Commutator, Self Excited Dynamo Neilson - Hot Blast Furnace 1829 Nobili, Melloni - Thermopile Radiant Heat Measurement Becquerel - Constant Current Cell 1830 Ure - Bi-metal Thermostat Henry - Electromagnetic Induction 1831 Faraday - Solenoid, Induction Coil, Transformer, Dynamo, Homopolar Machine Henry - Electric Telegraph Henry - Relay 1832 Schilling - Electric Telegraph Pixii - Magneto, Direct Current Dynamo 1833 Faraday - Laws of Electrolysis Christie - Wheatstone Bridge Weber, Gauss - Magnetic Fields, Electric Telegraph Lenz - Induced Current Law Graham - Diffusion Law Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Gaz Engine Ericsson - Hot Air Engine, Ericsson Cycle, Screw Propeller, USS Monitor 1834 Peltier - Thermo-cooling Effect Clapeyron - Heat Engine Theory, Thermodynamics 1835 Gauss - Electric Field Theory, Normal Probability Distribution Morse - Electric Telegraph, Morse Code Lindsay - Electric Arc Welding, Electric Lamp 1836 Daniell - Battery, Non-Polarising Cell Berzelius - Catalysts Paris - Electric Light Installation Dubus-Bonnel - Woven Fibreglass Callan - Induction Coil, Maynooth Battery 1837 Faraday - Capacitor Theory Davenport - Electric Motor Cooke, Wheatstone - Electric Telegraph Ettrick, Henley - Insulated Electrical Wire Mc Gauley, Page - Interrupter, Self-Acting Circuit Breaker 1838 Davidson - Switched Reluctance DC Motor, Electric Locomotive Steinheil - Earth(Ground) Return Single Wire Signalling 1839 Steinheil - Electric Clock Grove - Fuel Cell Faraday - Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Generator Jacobi - Power Transfer Theorem, Load Matching, Electric Boat, Electroplating, Electroforming Becquerel - Photovoltaic Effect Simon - Polystyrene 1840 Joule - Electric Heating (Joule's) Law, First Law of Thermodynamics Elkingtons - Electroplating Newall - Cable Making Airy - Feedback, Closed Loop Systems Armstrong - Hydro-Electric Generator 1841 Bunsen - Carbon Zinc Cell, Spectroscopy Bain - Electric Clock, Earth Battery 1842 Doppler - Doppler Effect 1843 Bain - Image Scanning, Fax Machine, Punched Paper Tape, Telegraph Improvements Ada Lovelace, Babbage - Computer Programming, Stored Program, Binary Numbers, Analytical Engine Wheatstone - Rheostat Hancock, Goodyear - Vulcanisation of Rubber du Bois Reymond - Electrophysiology, Nerve Impulses 1845 Faraday - Magneto-Optic Effect Kirchhoff - Network Theory, Speed of Light, Spectroscopy, Composition of the Sun and Stars Armstrong - Hydraulic Machinery, Armaments, Guns, Rifling, Explosive Shells, Hydroelectric Scheme 1846 Smithson - Smithsonian Institution Faraday - Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism Semyonov - Oil Wells, Petroleum Industry 1847 Brunel - Atmospheric Railway 1848 Kelvin - Absolute Temperature 1849 Lincoln, President Abraham - Inflatable Bouyancy Chamber (US Patent 6469) Fizeau - Speed of Light, Red Shift Bourdon - Pressure Gauge 1850 Clausius - Mechanical Theory of Heat Mirand - Trembling Electric Bell 1851 Kelvin - Second Law of Thermodynamics Ruhmkorff - High Voltage Induction Coil Foucault - Foucault's Pedulum, Rotation of the Earth, Gyroscopes Singer - Sewing Machine, Hire Purchase Agreements Whitworth - British Standard Screw Threads (BSW), Bench Micrometer, Whitworth Rifle, Polygonal Rifling, Interchangeable Parts, Twist Drill 1852 Frankland - Chemical Bonds, Valency Joule, Thomson - Gas Laws, Vapour Compression Refrigeration Channing, Farmer - Automatic Fire Alarm System, Diplex Telegraphy 1853 Pope - Electric Burglar Alarm Gintl - Duplex Telegraphy Rankine - Potential Energy Kelvin - RLC Circuit Theory 1854 Bourseul - Electrical Transmission of Sound Geissler - Vacuum Tubes, Fluorescent Light Boole - Boolean Logic Tyndall - Light Pipe, Fibre Optics Stenhouse - Gas Mask Barsanti, Matteucci - Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine 1855 Parkes - Plastic, Celluloid Bessemer - Bessemer Converter, Steel Making, Ormolu 1856 Muchet Bessemer Process, Tungsten Steel, Steel Rails Kelvin - Dynamic Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, Strain Gauge 1857 Kelvin - Magneto Resistance Wheatstone - Punched Paper Tape 1858 Field, Whitehouse, Kelvin, Wimshurst, Brunel - Transatlantic Telegraph Cable, Mirror Galvanometer Plücker, Hittorf - Cathode Rays, Fluorescent Lights Couper, Kekulé - Organic Chemistry, Linking Carbon Atoms Holmes - Electric Burglar Alarm Cannizzaro - Atomic and Molecular Weights 1859 Rankine - Thermodynamic Cycles Carré - Gas Absorption Refrigeration Darwin - The Origin of Species, Theory of Evolution 1860 Russell, Waddell and Majors - US Pony Express Lenoir - Internal Combustion Engine, Spark Ignition, Lenoir Cycle Reithmann - Four Stroke Engine Planté - Lead Acid Rechargeable Battery Mouchout - Solar Powered Motor Maxwell - Primary Colours, Colour Photography 1861 Reis - Telephone Meucci - Telephone Beau de Rochas - Four Stroke Engine 1862 Otto - Spark Ignition Four Stroke Engine, Otto Cycle 1863 Alkali Works Act - Environmental Legislation Davis - Pilot Plants, Safety Practices Jedlik - Multiplying Capacitor Battery (High Voltage Generator) Sorby - Metallography, Metallurgy 1864 Maxwell - Electromagnetic Waves Elkington - Electrolytic Refining 1865 Clausius - Entropy ITU - International Telecommunications Union Established Siemens, Martin - Open Hearth Steel Production 1866 Varley, Siemens, Wheatstone, Hjorth, Jedlik - Dynamo, Electromagnetic Armature 1867 Siemens - Reversibility of Dynamo Kelvin - Water Powered Electrostatic Generator Nobel - Dynamite, Gelignite, Nitroglycerine, Detonators, Nobel Prizes Scholes, Glidden, Soule - Typewriter 1868 Leclanché - Zinc Carbon Wet Cell Maxwell - Feedback Control Systems Farcot - Servomechanisms 1869 Hittorf - Ion Migration, Transport Number Meyer, Mendeleyef - Periodic Table of Elements Berges - Hydropower, "White Coal" Tyndall - Explanation of Blue Sky 1870 Hyatt - Plastic, Celluloid Player - Fibreglass 1870's Boltzmann - Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamic Entropy 1871 Weber - Atomic Structure, Current Flow Steiner - Electric Shock Treatment Tyndall - Fireman's Respirator, Gas Mask 1872 Baumann - PVC, Polyvinyl Chloride Loomis - Radio Clark - Standard Cell Stearns - Duplex Telegraphy 1872 Brayton - Continuous Combustion Engine, Brayton (Thermodynamic) Cycle 1873 Maxwell - Electromagnetic Radiation Theory, Maxwell's Equations Gramme, Fontaine - Commutators, DC Machines, Electrical Power Transmission Davidson - Electric Vehicle May, Smith - Photoconductivity van der Waals - Gas Laws, Intermolecular Forces 1874 Clamond - Thermo-electric Battery Edison - Quadruplex Telegraph Baudot - Digital Encoding, Multiplexer Braun - Crystal Rectifier Stoney - Electron Salomons - Electric Car 1875 Rowland - Current and Charge Flow 1876 Bell, Gray - Telephone Thomas - "Basic" Bessemer Process 1877 Hughes, Edison, Berliner, Hunnings, Blake - Carbon Microphone Adams, Day - Photo-electric Effect Siemens - Loudspeaker 1878 Gramme, Fontaine - Electric Alternator Gibbs - Chemical Thermodynamics, Free Energy Concept, Vector Analysis Niaudet - Battery Industry Growth, 100 Battery Types, Recycling Redmond - Television de Paiva - Electric Telescope Langley - Bolometer Swan - Incandescent Electric Light Schuckert - Electrical Power Generation by Steam Armstrong - Hydro-Electric Power Generation de Laval - Impulse Steam Turbine 1879 Edison, Swan and Others - Incandescent Electric Light Hall - Magnetic Field Strength Sensors Crookes - Cathode Ray Tube, Radiometer Siemens Halske - Electric Railway Stefan - Black Body Radiation Hughes - Induction Balance, Metal Detector, Radio Waves, Electromagnetic Radiation 1880 Curie - Piezo-electricity Fauré - Lead Acid Battery Formation, Pasted Plates Hammesfahr - Fibreglass Cloth 1881 Thiebaut - Leclanché Cell Improvements Burr, Scott - Flashlight (Torch) Touvé - Electric Car International Electric Congress - Electrical Units, Volt, Ohm, Ampere Taylor - Time and Motion Study, Scientific Management Smith, Phelps, Edison, Woods - Induction Telegraph, Mobile Communications 1882 d'Arsonval - Moving Coil Galvanometer Tesla - Rotating Field Principle, 2 Phase Induction Motor Lalande, Chaperon - Rechargeable Alkaline Cells Wimshurst - Electrostatic Generator Ayrton, Perry - Electric Tricycle, Electric Lights Wheeler, Seely - Domestic Electrical Appliances Edison - DC Electricity Generating Station Elmer - Hydraulic Turbine Hammer - Thermionic Emission Hopkinson - Three Wire DC Electricity Generation and Distribution, DC Load Balancing, AC Generator Synchronisation 1883 Edison - Electric Fuse Fritts - Photo-voltaic Module Fitz Gerald - Radio Waves 1884 Heaviside - Coaxial Cable, Vector Calculus, Distortionless Transmission Lines, Heaviside-Kennelly Layer Parsons - Steam Turbines Renard - Zinc Chlorine Flow Battery Arrhenius - Galvanic Conductivity in Electrolytes, Ion Dissociation, Chemical Reaction Rates, Greenhouse Effect Le Chatelier - Chemical Equilibrium Nipkow - Television System, Image Raster Scanning 1885 Goldstein - Canal Rays Ferraris - Induction Motor, Rotating Magnetic Field, Alternator Benardos, Olszewski - Electric Arc Welder Bláthy, Déri, Zipernowsky - High Voltage AC Distribution System, Transformer, AC Watt Hour Meter Benz - Automobile 1886 Stanley - Transformer Gassner - Carbon Zinc Dry Cell Hall, Héroult - Electrolytic Extraction of Aluminium Akroyd-Stuart - Compression Ignition Engine 1887 Kelvin - Electrostatic Voltmeter Arrhenius - Chemical Reaction Rates Thomson - Electric Resistance Welding Tesla - Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators, AC Distribution System Southwick - Execution by Electric Chair Ferranti - AC Distribution System, AC Electricity Generating Station, Induction Heating Waller - Electrocardiogram Boys - Fibreglass Hertz - Photoelectric Effect 1888 Hertz - Radio Waves Hallwachs - Photoelectric Effect Peral, Zede, Drzewiecki - Electric Submarines Reinitzer - Liquid Crystal Effect Strowger - Automatic Telephone Exchange Hayes - Telephone Exchange Central Battery Power 1889 Thomson - Recording Wattmeter Dobrovolski - Squirrel Cage Induction Motor, Three Phase Electricity Transmission Westinghouse - Hydroelectric AC Generating and Distribution System Nernst - Galvanic Cell Theory, Enthalpy, Third Law of Thermodynamics 1890 Ewing - Hysteresis Tesla - High Frequency Multi-pole Rotary Generator 1891 Steinmetz - Hysteresis Law, AC Circuit Analysis, Phasors Ward Leonard - Variable Speed Control Wenström - Three Phase Electrical Power Systems Hertz, Lenard - Cathode Rays Branly - Coherer (Radio Wave Detector) Varley - Lightning Bridge Lilienthal - Hang Gliders, Theories of Flight 1892 Weston - Standard Cell, Electric Instruments Stubblefield - Ground Battery, Radio Lorentz - Electrodynamics, Electromagnetic Fields, Electromagnetic Forces 1893 Elster, Geitel - Photocell Westinghouse - End of the Current Wars Chanute - Progress in Flying Machines Diesel - Compression Ignition Engine, Diesel Cycle 1894 Lodge, Muirhead - Radio Signal Transmission 1895 Röntgen - X-ray Effect Curie - Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism, Curie Point Popov - Radio Waves, Antennas 1896 Marconi - Radio Telegraphy Jacques - Carbon Battery Becquerel - Radioactivity Misell - Flashlight (Torch), D Cells Dowsing - Automobile Self-Starter, Integrated Starter Generator Langley - Aeronautical Theory 1897 Thomson - Electron Braun - Oscilloscope Darraq - Regenerative Braking Tsiolkovsky - Theory of Rocket Motion, Multi-Stage Rockets, Regenerative Cooling Peukert - Available Battery Capacity 1898 Poulsen - Magnetic Recording and Playback Apparatus Wien - Proton Lodge - Radio Tuning Curie - Radioactivity, Radium 1899 Duell - Patents Rutherford, Soddy - Alpha Rays, Beta Rays Villard - Gamma Rays Jungner - Nickel Cadmium Rechargeable Cells Jénatzy - Electric Vehicle, Land Speed Record Porsche - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Pupin - Inductive Loading Coils 1900 Edison - Nickel Iron Battery Planck - Quantum Theory Drude - Electrical Conduction Pieper - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Holland - Dual Propulsion Submarine 1901 Michaelowski - Nickel Zinc Battery 1902 Hewitt - Mercury Arc Rectifier USA - Electricity Market Penetration 1903 Einthoven - Electrocardiograph Wright Brothers - Powered flight Soddy, Rutherford - Radioactivity, Spontaneous Atomic Disintegration Hanson - Flexible Printed Circuits Krieger - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tswett - Chromatography Murray - Teleprinter 1904 Fleming - Diode Rectifier, Potentiometer Hülsmeyer - Radar Hubbell - Mains Plug and Socket Conti - Geothermal Power Plant 1905 Einstein - Quantum Theory, Avogadro's Number, Brownian Motion, Speed of Light, E = mc Tafel - Battery Theory Piper - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Riker, Ford - Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Langévin - Magnetism, Magnetic Properties 1906 Fessenden - Broadcast Radio, Amplitude Modulation (AM) Alexanderson - High Frequency Multi-pole Rotary Generator Pickard, Dunwoody - Crystal Detector, Cat's Whisker 1907 Baekeland - Thermosetting Plastic de Forest - Triode Round - Light Emitting Diode (LED) Weiss - Magnetic Domains, Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism, Ferromagnetism Simon - Silk Screen Printing Héroult - Electric Arc Furnace 1908 Voith - Pumped Storage Brandenberger - Cellophane 1909 Sørensen - p H Acidity/Alkalinity Measure Haber, Bosch - Haber Process, Nitrogen Fixation, Ammonia, Chemical Warfare Ostwald - Ostwald Process, Nitric Acid Production Beautey - Hermetically Sealed Wet Battery 1910 Millikan - Electron Charge Wulf, Hess - Cosmic Rays, Cosmic Radiatiion Coolidge - Tungsten Filament Light Bulb Claude - Neon Lights 1911 Onnes, Holst - Superconductivity Rutherford - Atomic Structure Campbell Swinton - Electronic Television 1912 Thomson, Soddy - Isotopes, Mass Spectromete Haynes, Brierley, Strauss, Maurer - Stainless Steel Sauveur - Metallography, Metallurgy, Heat Treatment Kettering - Automobile Electric Starter Bragg - X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Crystallography von Laue - X-ray Theory Wilson - Cloud Chamber Armstrong - Regenerative Radio Receiver, Positive Feedback Sarnoff - Monitoring Titanic SOS Signals Leavitt - Cepheid Star Period-Luminosity Relation, Standard Candles 1913 Bohr - Quantum Mechanics, Atomic Structure Moseley - Atomic Number, Periodic Table Berry, Littlefield, Bassist - Printed Circuits Ford - Moving Conveyor Line, Paced Assembly Line 1914 Millikan - Planck's Constant Determination Slipher - Red Shifted Galaxies 1915 Benedicks - Germanium Crystal Rectifier Willard - Automotive SLI Batteries Fery - Air Depolarising, Zinc-Air Battery Colpitts - Push-Pull Amplifier Hartley, Colpitts - Variable Frequency Oscillators Carson - Single Sideband Suppressed Carrier Modulation, Frequency Division Multiplexing Shapley - Stellar Distance Estimation, Cosmic Dimensions 1916 Lewis - Chemical Bonding, Ionic Bonding Sommerfeld - Atomic Structure, Quantum States Kondratyuk - Interplanetary Space Travel Northrup - High Frequency Induction Heating Czochralski - Single Crystal Growth 1917 Campbell, Wagner - Passive Electric Wave Filters Rutherford - Splits Atom, Proton 1918 Armstrong, Schottky - Superheterodyne Radio Tuner Scherbius, Koch - Enigma Encription Schoop - Printed Circuits 1919 Eccles, Jordan - Flip Flop Eguchi - Electrets Schottky - Tetrode Valve Nicholson - Crystal Oscillator 1920 KDKA - First Commercial Radio Broadcasts Aston - Nuclear Mass Defect, Binding Energy Eddington - Sun's Energy Source Hull - Magnetron 1921 UK - Electricity Market Penetration Cady - Crystal Controlled Oscillator Midgley - Anti-knock Fuel (Tetraethyl Lead), Refrigerants (Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)) 1920's Diesel Electric Locomotives, Electric Drives 1922 BBC - Public Radio Broadcasting Losev - Light Emitting Diode (LED), Solid State Amplifier, Negative Resistance Amplifier Minorsky - Feedback Control Systems, PID (3 Term) Controller Staudinger, Simon - Theory of Polymers, Polystyrene von Platen, Munters - Gas Absorption Refrigerator Einstein, Szilard - Refrigerator 1923 Marconi Company - Hearing Aid Dodge, Romig - Sampling Inspection Tables, AOQL Brønsted, Lowry, Lewis - Acids and Bases Pierce - "Pierce" Crystal Controlled Oscillator 1924 Berger - Encephalograph de Broglie - Wave Particle Duality Rice, Kellogg - Moving Coil Loudspeaker Schottky, Gerlach - Ribbon Microphone Appleton - Ionosphere, Appleton Layer, Radar Kapitza - Bipolar Battery, Suprfluidity, Cryogenics Kapitza, Bernal - Zone Refining 1925 Maxfield, Harrison - Electrical Sound Recording Bush - Analogue Computer Pauli - Exclusion Principle, Electron Spin, Beta Decay, Neutrino Heisenberg - Quantum Theory, Matrix Mechanics Ducas - Printed Circuits 1926 Parolini, Edison - Printed Circuits Semon - PVC, Plasticisers Eckert, Ziegler - Injection Moulding Machine Schrödinger - Quantum Wave Mechanics, Wave Equation Born - Quantum State Probability Lilienfeld - Field Effect Transistor Goddard - Liquid Fuelled Rockets, 3 Axis Flight Controls Loomis - Tuxedo Park Laboratory, MIT Radiation Laboratory Ridenour - MIT Radiation Lab Series Publications 1927 Heisenberg - Uncertainty Principle Thomson, Davisson - Wave Nature of the Electron Hund - Quantum Tunneling USA - Battery Costs Chauvin Arnoux - Multimeter Black - Feedback Control Theory, Distortion Control Seymour - Flexible Printed Circuits Farnsworth - All Electronic Television System Marrison, Horton - Quartz Clock, Crystal Controlled Oscillator Haldane - Heat Pump 1928 Dirac - Electron Magnetic Spin Properties, Anti-particles, Quantum Electrodynamics, QED, Positron Hartley - Signal Information Content, Information Transmission Rates Nyquist - Communications, Sampling Theory Johnson - Thermal Noise (Johnson Noise) Potocnik - Geostationary Satellites Raman - Raman Scattering 1929 Zworykin - Television Picture Tube Hubble - Big Bang, Expanding Universe, Hubble's Law 1930 Butler, Volmer - Battery Kinetic Electrochemistry Gusseff, Lazarenko - Electro-chemical Machining, Electro-discharge Machining Lilienfeld - Electrolytic Capacitors Whittle - Jet Engine 1931 Carothers - Neoprene, Nylon Fischar - Metal Detector Drumm - Traction Battery de Bellescise - Phase Locked Loop (PLL), Radio Tuning Circuits, Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) Blumlein - Stereo Sound 1932 Knoll, Ruska - Transmission Electron Microscope Bacon - Alkaline Fuel Cell Cockcroft, Walton - Proton Accelerator, Split the Atom, E = mc Verification Lawrence - Cyclotron Particle Accelerator Chadwick - Isolates the Neutron Szilard - Chain Reaction, Critical Mass, Atom Bomb Anderson - Positron, Elementary Particles Tamm - Phonons Heise, Schumacher - Zinc Air Battery Schlecht, Ackermann - Sintered Pole Plates Nyquist - Feedback Control Theory, Stability Control Kleist, Slayter - Fibreglass 1933 Dassler - Recombinant Batteries Meissner, Ochsenfeld - Superconductor Magnetic Properties First Injection Moulded Polystyrene Products Gibson, Fawcett - Polyethylene Armstrong- Frequency Modulation (FM) Franz - Flexible Printed Circuits 1934 Sonneberg - Gelled Cell Lead Acid Batteries Chauvin Arnoux - Current Measuring Clamp 1935 Watson-Watt - Radar, IFF (Identification - Friend or Foe), RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) Heil - Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET), Klystron, Air Motion Transformer Varian - Klystron (1937) 1930's Ampoule Batteries 1936 Ellis - Polyester Resin 1937 Shannon - Information Theory, Digital Technology, Boolean Logic Operations Reeves - Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), Digital Circuits Dippy - Radio Navigation Sargrove - Printed Circuits 1938 Bode - Control System Stability Forrester, Everett - Real-Time Operating Systems, Parallel Processing, Ferrite Core Memory Gross - Walkie-Talkie, Mobile Radio Meitner, Hahn, Strassmann - Nuclear Fission, Splitting the Atom Olsen - Minicomputers Plunkett - PTFE UK - Electricity Market Penetration Sola - Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) Schottky - Schottky Diode, Semiconductor Theory Zuse - Programmable Digital Computer, High Level Language 1939 I. Farbenindustrie - Epoxy Resin, Composites Bethe - Explanation of Sun's Source of Energy UK - Electricity Market Penetration 1940 Randall, Boot - Cavity Magnetron Frisch, Peierls - Atomic Bomb Tizard - Technology Transfer UK-US Loomis, Pierce, Dippy - LORAN 1941 André - Silver Oxide Zinc Battery Ohl - P-N Junction, Semiconductors, Silicon Solar Cell Adams - Water Activated Battery Ransburg - Electrostatic Paint Spraying Centralab - Thick Film Circuits 1942 Fermi - Nuclear Chain Reaction Coover - Superglue Hanford, Holmes - Polyurethane Hedy Lamarr, Antheil - Frequency Hopping Secure Communications, Spread Spectrum, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Kompfner - Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) 1943 Eisler - Printed Circuit Board 1944 German Army, Schmidt, Gosslau, Lüsser - V-1 Cruise Missile German Luftwaffe, Dornberger, von Braun - V-2 Ballistic Missile (Rocket) Ruben, Mallory - Mercuric Oxide Batteries Brenner, Riddel, Pessel - Electroless Plating 1945 Clarke - Geostationary Communications Satellites Ragazzini, Philbrick - Operational Amplifier, Analogue Circuits Bush - Memex (Hypertext) Mc Millan, Veksler - Synchrotron 1946 Bloch, Purcell - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spencer - Microwave Oven Philips - Ceramic Magnets 1947 Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley - Transistor Young, Ring - Cellular Communications Neumann - Battery Seals Piezoelectric Ceramic Gramophone Needle Gabor - Holography Parsons - Numerically Controlled Machine Tools Miller - Combustion Engine Efficiency Improvements Yeager, Woods, Stack, Diehl, Kotchner - Supersonic Aircraft Libby - Radiocarbon Dating 1948 Bell Labs - Transistor Announcement Mataré, Welker - Transistron, The French Transistor Teal, Little - Single Crystal Growth Teal, Sparks - Grown Junction Transistor Teal, Buehler - Silicon Crystal Growth, Silicon Diodes Shannon - Mathematical Theory of Communications, Information Entropy, Sampling Theory, Channel Capacity Tradeoffs Motor, Magnetic Levitation, Maglev Trains Durrer - Basic Oxygen Steel Making 1949 Woodland, Silver - Bar Code System Forrester - Magnetic Core Random Access Memory (RAM) Danko, Abramson - Dip Soldering 1950 Shockley - Electrons and Holes Shockley - Four Layer Diode, Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Nishizawa - PIN Diode Oerlikon - Flywheel Battery Dreyer - LCD Polarisers Deming - Total Quality Management, TQM Martin - Gas Chromatography 1951 Wilkes, Wheeler & Gill - Assembly Language Programming Hopper - Compiler Saby - Alloy Junction Transistor Thornton - Transistor Jet Etching Technique, Surface Barrier Transistor Ford - Automatic Assembly, Production Automation Ohmart - Nuclear Batteries, Direct Energy Conversion Nuclear Power Plants Sakharov, Tamm - Tokamak, Thermonuclear Fusion 1952 Lip - Electric Watch Transistor Production Pfann - Zone Refining Theuerer - Float Zone Refining Zener - Zener Diode Fuller - Semiconductor Diffusion Doping Welker - Gallium Arsenide (Ga As) Fukui - Molecular Orbitals Dummer - Integrated Circuit Oatley - Scanning Electron Microscope Eccles, Hodgkin, Huxley - Nerve Impulse Transmission 1953 Microtone, Maico, Unex, Radioear - Transistor Hearing Aid with Button Cell Mataré, Welker - Transistor Radio Kay - Digital Voltmeter (DVM) Fox - Polycarbonate 1954 Borg-Warner - ABS Polymers Mc Intire - Styrofoam Shockley, Ohl - Ion Implantation Lee - Diffused Base Germanium Mesa Transistor Chapin, Fuller, Pearson - Silicon Solar Cell Tanenbaum - Diffused Base Silicon Mesa Transistor Adcock, Teal - Silicon Transistor Koch - Transistor Radio Backus - Fortran Teal - Silicon Transistors Devol, Engleberger - Industrial Robots 1955 Grubb - Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Johnson - Computer Hard Disk USS Nautilus - Nuclear Powered Submarine Polley - Wireless (Optical) TV Remote Control Adler - Ultrasonic TV Remote Control Essen, Parry - Caesium Atomic Clock Wang - Magnetic Core Computer Memory, Random Access Memory (RAM) Kapany - Fibre Optics Uhlir, Bakanowski - Varactor Diode or Varicap Shockley - Four Layer Diode, Shockley Diode Lawson - Conditions for Nuclear Fusion Hastings - Mathematical Approximations 1956 Bell Labs, British Post Office - Trans Atlantic Telephone Cable (TAT 1) Hall, Gutzwiller - Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR), Thyristor 1957 Korolev - Sputnik 1 and 2, Artificial Earth Satellite, Soviet Space Programme, First Animal in Space Esaki - Tunnel Diode, Negative Resistance, Electron Tunneling Bardeen, Cooper, Schreiffer - BCS Theory, Superconductivity Kouwenhoven - Defibrillator Hamilton Watch - Electric Watches Jache - Gel VRLA battery Hanratty - Numerical Control, CAD/CAM Frosch, Derrick - Silicon Dioxide Masking Andrus, Bond - Photolithography Mc Carthy, Bemer - Computer Time-Sharing, Operating Systems 1958 Niedrach - PEM Fuel Cells, Gemini Spacecraft Hoerni - Transistors, Planar Process Lehovec - Integrated Circuit, Dielectric Isolation Kilby, Noyce - Integrated Circuits Schawlow, Townes, Gould - Laser Van Allen - Radiation Belt, Explorer 1 Satellite 1959 Urry - Alkaline Primary Battery Ihrig - Fuel Cell Powered Vehicle Feynman - Nanotechnology Volder - CORDIC Mathematical Approximations 1960 Maiman - Laser Pope, Kallmann - Organic Electroluminescence, Organic Semiconductors Kahng, Atalla - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Sah - MOSFET Hofstein, Heiman - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Integrated Circuit, MOS IC Loor, Christensen, Kleimack, Theurer, Ross - Epitaxial Deposition Cho, Arthur - Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Greatbatch - Heart Pacemaker, Lithium Primary Battery Sutherland - Sketchpad, CAD Hetzel, Bennett - Electronic Tuning Fork Watch Getting, Parkinson, Easton - Global Positioning System (GPS), Satellite Navigation System 1960's Zinc Air Button Cells Bacon - Alkaline Fuel Cells, Apollo Spacecraft 1961 US Department of Energy - Nuclear Batteries Riley - Cordless Power Tools UK - Electricity Market Penetration Noyce - Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL) Thomson - Multiple Input Emitter Transistor, Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) Baker - Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) Buie, Longo - Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) Aroot - Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) Wanlass, Sah - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Lin - Bipolar CMOS (Bi CMOS) Taylor - Computer Networks, Arpanet, Xerox PARC Labs Kalman - Predictive Control Systems 1962 Philbrick - Operational Amplifiers (Op-amps) Widlar, Talbert - Operational Amplifiers (Op-amps), Linear Circuits Holonyak - Light Emitting Diode Josephson - Superconducting Materials, Magnetic Field Sensor Carson - Silent Spring, Environmental Protection Pierce, Early, Kompfner, O'Neill - Telstar 1, Communications Satellite Charyk - COMSAT formed Licklider - "Intergalactic Computer Network" (Internet Concept) 1963 Cormack, Hounsfield - Computerised Axial Tomography, CAT Scanning Gunn - Gunn Diode Rosen, Williams, Hudspeth, Mendel - Syncom Geosynchronous Satellite, Geostationary Satellite 1964 Baran, Davies - Packet Switching, Internet Weitbrecht, Marsters, Saks - Teletypewriter (TTY), Acoustic Coupler Modem Kemeny, Kurtz - BASIC Programming Language Geulia - Super Flywheel Battery Henry-Baudot - Printed Circuit (Pancake) Motor Bitzer, Slottow, Wilson - Flat Panel Plasma Display Higgs - Higgs Field, Higgs Boson 1965 Zadeh - Fuzzy Logic Russell - Optical Disk System, Compact Disk, CD ROM Cooley, Tukey - Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Rosen - Intelsat 1 (Early Bird), Communications Satellite Hilton, Korolev - Highly Elliptical Orbits (HEO), Molniya Satellite, Nationwide Satellite Television Broadcasts Moore - Moore's Law, Integrated Circuits Johnston, De Loach, Cohen - IMPATT Diode Nelson - Hypertext 1966 Longo - Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), TTL Memory Dennard - Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) Weber, Kummer - Sodium Sulphur Battery CODATA - Physical Constants Kao, Hockham - Fibre Optic Communications de Gaulle - Rance Tidal Energy Scheme 1967 Gates (Corporation)- Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) Battery Beccu - Nickel Metal Hydride (NIMH) Battery Kahng, Sze - Non-Volatile Memory, Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM) Thornley, Hatzakis - Electron Beam Lithography Walker, Koford, Jones - Micromosaic, Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) Engelbart - Computer Mouse, Graphical User Interface (GUI), Hypertext, Video Conferencing 1968 Carter - Carterfone Judgement, Telecoms Deregulation Heilmeier - Liquid Crystal Display Knuth - The Art of Programming Kummer, Weber - AMTEC Direct Energy Conversion Rosen - De-spun Satellite Antenna 1969 Armstrong, Aldrin First men on the Moon, Collins Apollo 11 Captain Draper, Hall - Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC), Moon Landing Fergason - Twisted Nematic Field Effect, LCD Smith, Boyle - Charge Coupled Device Nakamura - Quartz Wristwatch Taylor, Roberts - ARPANet, Linked Computers 1970 Gray - LCD Materials Maurer, Keck, Schultz, Zimar - Low Loss Fibre Optic Cable Regitz, Karp, Hoff, Rowe, Abbott, Vadasz, Reed - Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) Chua - Static Random Access Memory (DRAM) Frohman - Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM), OTP EPROM Joel - Cellular Phone Handoff System Abramson - ALOHAnet, Local Area Networks (LANs) 1971 Fagin, Hoff, Mazor - Single Chip Microprocessor Shugart - Computer Floppy Disk System Engel, Frenkiel, Gladden, Parelman - Cellular Communications System Sampson - Gamma Electric Cell, Nuclear Battery Tomlinson - Internet Email 1972 Sodium Sulphur Battery Tested Richie, Thompson - C Programming Language Sinclair - Pocket Calculator Chauvin Arnoux - Digital Multimeter 1973 Cooper - Portable Cell Phone, Cellular Base Station Cerf, Kahn - TCP/IP Internet Protocol Metcalfe, Boggs - Ethernet Cardullo, Walton - RFID Tags (Radio Frequency Identification) Projection Printing (Photolithography) 1974 Isley, Endres, Johnston, Marble, Senechal - 3 Axis Satellite Stabilisation, RF Inteferometer, Star Tracker, ATS-6 Experimental Direct TV Broadcast Satellite (DBS) Werbos - Neural Networks Mc Ginniss, Corry, Proctor - Organic Semiconductors, Conductive Polymers 1970s VRLA Battery Development 1975 Dunlop, Giner, van Ommering, Stockel - Nickel Hydrogen Battery Roberts - Personal Computer Gates (Bill), Allen - BASIC Interpreter, Microsoft, MS-DOS, Windows Operating System 1976 Kildall - Personal Computer Disk Operating System (DOS) Jobs, Wozniak - Apple Personal Computer Ungerboek - Forward Error Correction, Trellis Code Modulation Diffie, Hellman - Shared Key Encryption Ellis, Cocks, Williamson - Public Key Encryption Rivest, Shamir, Adleman - Public Key Encryption 1977 AT&T and Bell Labs - Cellular Phone System Heeger, Mac Diarmid, Shirakawa - Conductive Polymers Damadian - Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI Scanning Birkner, Chua - Programmable Logic Device (PLD) Hayes, Heatherington - PC Modem 1978 Christensen, Suess - Bulletin Board System (BBS) Jennings - Fido Net E. Kraftwerk - Compressed Air Energy Storage Cooper, Littauer - Metal-Air Batteries, Aluminium-Air Batteries Step and Repeat Photolithography Breedlove, Wiggins, Frantz - Digital Signal Processor (DSP), Speak and Spell 1979 Goodenough - Lithium Ion Rechargeable Cell Bricklin - Spreadsheet 1980 UK Atomic Energy Commission - Zebra Battery AGM Lead Acid Battery Baliga - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Mead, Conway - Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits, (VLSI) Ford Aerospace - Commercal Direct to Home Television, Direct Broadcast Satellite TV (DBS) 1981 Binnig, Rohrer - Scanning Tunneling Microscope Drexler - Nanotechnology Mac Cready - Photovoltaic Powered Airplane 1982 Solar One, Thermal Power Plant Petersen - MEMS, NEMS, Silicon Machining, Micro-Electromechanical Components 1983 Jobs - Graphical User Interface, (GUI) Hall - 3D Printing, Stereo Lithography, Rapid Prototyping 1984 Masuoka - Flash Memory, Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) Freeman - Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) 1985 Curl, Kroto, Smalley - Buckminsterfullerenes Skil - Cordless Power Tool 1980s Sealed VRLA Batteries Commercialised 1986 Ovshinsky - Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Developments Binnig, Rohrer - Atomic Force Microscope Hitachi - Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Bednorz, Müller - High Temperature Superconductors Smith - Six Sigma Quality Viterbi, Jacobs, Gilhousen - Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Cellular Systems Tsumura, Koezuka, Ando - Organic Thin Film Transistor (OTFT) 1987 Tang, van Slyke - Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) 1988 SCE - 40MWH Lead Acid Load Levelling Battery Fan, Tai, Muller - Micro-Scale Electrostatic Motor, Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Fert, Grünberg GMR Giant Magneto Resistance Chiariglione - Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) Lechleider, Cioffi - Broadband Communications, ADSL 1989 Berners-Lee - World Wide Web (WWW), HTML, HTTP, URL, Browser Pons, Fleischmann - Cold Nuclear Fusion Brown - Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Regenesys - Flow Battery Bates - Thin Film Battery Boeing - Stacked Semiconductor Photovoltaic Cell Commercial Exploitation of the Internet, Email Services 1990 Emtage - Internet Search Engine Sony - Lithium Secondary Cells Introduction Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Commercialisation 1990's New Market Demands 1991 Iijima - Carbon Nanotubes, Buckytubes Grätzel - Photoelectrochemical Cell Zimmermann - PGP Public Key Encryption 1992 Kordesch - Rechargeable Alkaline Manganese Battery 1993 Cooper - Zinc Air Batteries, Mechanical Charging 1994 Bellcore - Lithium Polymer Cells Power Net - 42 Volt Automotive Battery Standard Rydbeck, Ullman Bluetooth Wireless Interface 1995 Bhatt and others - Universal Serial Bus (USB) Pouch Cell Duracell, Intel - Smart Battery, SMBus Energizer - On-Cell Fuel Gauge or Battery Tester Bayliss - Clockwork Battery 1996 BMW - Flywheel Energy Storage Accident Patterson - Power Cells Poehler, Searson - All Plastic Battery Brauschweig University - Solar Powered Aeroplane 1997 Hayes, Hills - Wireless LANs, Wi-Fi Photovoltaic Modules Production 1998 NGK - 48MWH Sodium Sulphur Load Levelling Battery CODATA - Readjusts Physical Constants 2000 Mills - Hydrino Hydride Battery Tripathy - Flexible Polymer Solar Panels 2000's Market Trends 2001 Smalley - Nanowires 2002 Nanomaterials ORNL - Thin Film Batteries 2003 Geim, Novoselov - Graphene Teeters, Korzhova, Fisher - Nanobattery Zettl - Nano-Scale Electrostatic Motor, Nano-Electromechanical Systems(NEMS) University of San Diego - "Smart Dust", Nano Robots, Nano Batteries Regenesys - Cancelled GVEA - 40 Megawatt Battery Battery Sales Volumes Partanen - Rechargeable Aluminium Air Battery 2004 Toshiba - Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Intel - Itanium 2 Processor 2005 Ki Bang Lee - Urine Battery Satoh - Organic Radical Battery Armstrong - Biofuel Cell van Hoof - Thermo-electric Generator Using Body Heat 2006 Kassakian, Schindall, Signorelli - Enhanced Double Layer Capacitors, Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes 2007 Jobs, Ive - Smartphone Internet Capable Phone Hatazawa, Kano - Sugar Battery (Biofuel Cell) 2008 Johnson - JTEC Battery (Johnson Thermoelectric Energy Conversion) System CERN, Evans - Large Hadron Collider 2011 Hung, Hsu, Lin - Data Storage on DNA 2012 Church, Kosuri DNA Data Storage Device CERN - Higgs Boson Confirmed Sadoway, Bradwell - Liquid Metal Battery 2013 Nuckolls, Teller, Kidder, Dunne, Hurricane, Moses Inertial Confinement Nuclear Fusion 2015 Battery Futures???

Thales - Static Electricity, Geometry, Surveying, Scientific Method 530 B. Pythagoras - Mathematics, Divine Proportion, Number Theory 500 B.